Bibliography For History’s Mysteries and Ironies: Ancient Egypt
Bibliography for History’s Mysteries and Ironies, Ancient Egypt.
Slide 3, 4.
ANTONY & CLEOPATRA BY ADRIAN GOLDSWORTHY
David Pybus Researcher of Blue Lotus:
Slide 5: Cleopatra’s pearl
Slide 7: When a fire is lit, the air in the altar is heated and, as it expands, it enters a hollow sphere full of water. Due to the rising pressure in the sphere, some of the water is displaced into the bucket. As the bucket becomes more heavy, it is lowered, opening the doors of the temple (Figure 12). When the fire at the altar was put out, the pressure inside the altar would drop, and water would go back to the hollow sphere, pushed by atmospheric pressure. Then, the counterweights would force the doors of the temple to close.
Slide 8, Mummies & Medicine
Mummy parts used as medicine
Mumia = Persian bitumen
The meaning of mumia shifted in a big way in the 12th century when Gerard of Cremona, a translator of Arabic-language manuscripts, defined the word as “the substance found in the land where bodies are buried with aloes by which the liquid of the dead, mixed with the aloes, is transformed and is similar to marine pitch.” After this point the meaning of mumia expanded to include not just asphalt and other hardened, resinous material from an embalmed body but the flesh of that embalmed body as well.
As with a game of telephone, where meaning changes with each transference, people eventually came to believe that the mummies themselves (not the sticky stuff used to embalm them) possessed the power to heal.
What was the attraction of mummy medicine in early modern Europe? Likely the exoticism of mummies, at least in part. Europeans began exploring Egypt in the 13th century
Medical historian Mary Fissell reminds us that common understandings of medicinal usefulness were once quite different. Medicine that produced a physiological effect—whether purging or excreting—was considered successful.
Slide 10: Egyptian (Mummy) brown
Butcher Mummy paper: https://www.ajaonline.org/book-review/1184
The Corpse: A History Christine Quigley is Assistant Director for Academic Affairs in the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Georgetown University. She is also the author of Conjoined Twins (2003), Skulls and Skeletons (2001), Modern Mummies (1998) and Death Dictionary (1994). She lives in Alexandria, Virginiahttp://blog.seattlepi.com/bookpatrol/2010/02/19/has-this-library-solved-the-mystery-of-the-mummy-paper/?from=blog_last3
Dard Hunter is a well-known paper researcher and cataloguer and a proponent of handmade paper. His book, Papermaking: The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft, relates the experiments of I. Augustus Stanwood in both ground-wood paper and mummy paper. Hunter received his information from Stanwood’s son Daniel, a professor of international law. According to Daniel, during the American Civil War his father was hard-pressed for materials for his Maine mill. As such, he imported mummies from Egypt, stripped the bodies of their wrappings and used this material for making paper. Several shiploads of mummies were brought to the mill in Gardiner, Maine and were thus used to make a brown wrapping paper for grocers, butchers and other merchants.
US paper printed on mummy linen: (S.J. Wolfe) http://www.telegram.com/article/20100102/NEWS/1020340
Company was making paper from mummy wrappings, imported from Egypt.
Crocodile dung for contraception (slightly alkaline)
gum spermicide (mixed with honey)
Olive oil sperm motility https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9886513
Slide 12 Pregnancy test
Egypt pregnancy test https://history.nih.gov/exhibits/thinblueline/timeline.html